Dr Chris Brown

Chris Brown is standing next to a car holding a cup of tea

Principal Lecturer in Animal Biology/Biology

Biological Sciences

Contact Details

email: chris.brown@worc.ac.uk
tel: 01905 54 2185

Chris studied at the University of Cape Town in South Africa. Following completion of his Honours degree, he joined the Percy FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology where he worked on their sub-Antarctic programme for several years, which included over two years carrying out research on the energetics and ecology of penguins, albatrosses and petrels on Marion Island in the sub-Antarctic. After obtaining his PhD, Chris joined the Department of Zoology & Entomology at Rhodes University in Grahamstown. In 2002, after a short spell with the Department of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences at the University of the Witwatersrand, Chis moved to the UK as the Research Director at Hartpury College before joining the University of Worcester in 2008. His research interests are in animal physiological and behavioural ecology and ostrich biology.

 

Qualifications

  • PhD Zoology (University of Cape Town, 1988)
  • BSc (Hons) Zoology (University of Cape Town, 1980)
  • BSc Zoology (University of Cape Town, 1979)

Chris is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy.

Teaching

Current Teaching Areas
In addition to contributing to several other modules, I also teach specific modules on Animal diversity, Animal senses and survival, Physiological ecology, and Behavioural ecology.

Professional Bodies

Fellow of the Higher Education Academy

Society for Experimental Biology

Publications

Dr Chris Brown – publications
Publications are divided into (1) full length refereed papers or chapters in books and (2) refereed short communications. These are indicated at the end of each paper. Asterisks next to an author’s names indicate undergraduate or
postgraduate student authors or co-authors.

Publications in Peer-reviewed Journals
BRAND, Z., CLOETE, S.W.P. and BROWN, C.R. (2020). Hatch traits of artificially incubated ostrich eggs as affected by setting position, angle of rotation and season. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 50 (4): 607-612. (2)

1. BRAND, Z., CLOETE, S.W.P., MALECKI, I.A. & BROWN, C.R. (2017). Ostrich (Struthio camelus) embryonic development from 7 to 42 days of incubation. Brit. Poultry Sci. 58 (2): 139-143. (1)

2. BRAND, Z., CLOETE, Z.W.P., MALECKI, I.A. & BROWN, C.R. (2014). Embryonic development in the ostrich (Struthio camelus) during the first 7 days of artificial incubation. Brit. Poultry Sci. 55: 68-75. (1)

3. BRAND, Z., CLOETE, S.W.P., MALECKI, I.A. & BROWN, C.R. (2013). Changes in the air cell volume of artificially incubated ostrich eggs. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci.43: 98-104. (1)

4. BRAND, Z AND CLOETE, S.W.P., MALECKI, I.A. & BROWN, C.R. (2012) Genetic parameters for eggshell traits in ostriches. Brit. Poultry Sci. 53: 316-324. (1)

5. BRAND, Z., CLOETE, S.W.P., MALECKI, I.A. & BROWN, C.R. (2012) Heritability of embryonic mortalities in ostrich eggs and factors
affecting hatching failure of fertile eggs during artificial incubation. Anim.
Prod. Sci. 52: 806-812. (1)

6. *BRAND, Z., CLOETE, S.W.P., MALECKI, I.A. & BROWN, C.R. (2011) Influence of Incubation management on pipping position, hatching ability and
survival of ostrich chicks. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 41: 265-274. (1)

7. *BRAND, Z, CLOETE, S.W.P., MALECKI, I.A. & BROWN, C.R. (2009) Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci.39: 253-259. (1)

8. *BRAND, Z., CLOETE, S.W.P., MALECKI, I.A. & BROWN, C.R. (2008). Genetic relationships between water loss and shell deaths in ostrich eggs, assessed as traits of the female. Austr. J. Exp. Agr. 48:1326-1331. (1)

9. *BRAND, Z., CLOETE, S.W.P., BROWN, C.R. & MALECKI, I.A. (2007).
Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 38:
315-324. (1)

10. *BRAND, Z., CLOETE, S.W.P., BROWN, C.R. & MALECKI, I.A. (2007). Factors related to shell deaths during artificial incubation of ostrich eggs. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 78:195-200. (1)

11. BROWN, C.R. & *PEINKE, D.M. (2007). Activity patterns of springhares,
Pedetes capensis, in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. J. Zoology, Lond. 272:
148-155.

12. *PEINKE, D.M. & BROWN, C.R. (2006). Habitat use of the springhare
(Pedetes capensis) in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. S. Afr. J.
Wildl. Res. 36: 103-111. (1)

13. *PEINKE, D.M. & BROWN, C.R. (2005). Burrow utilization by springhares
(Pedetes capensis) in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Afr. Zool. 70: 37-44.
(1)

14. *BRAND, Z., BRAND, T.S. & BROWN, C.R. (2003). The effect of different
combinations of dietary energy and protein on the composition of ostrich
eggs. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 33: 193-200. (1)

15. *BRAND, Z., BRAND, T.S. & BROWN, C.R. (2003). The effect of dietary
energy and protein levels on production in breeding female ostriches. Brit.
Poultry Sci. 44: 598-606. (1)

16. TIELEMAN, B.I., WILLIAMS, J.B., BUSCHUR, M.E. & BROWN, C.R. (2003). Phenotypic plasticity of larks along an aridity gradient: are desert birds
more flexible? Ecology 84:1800-1815. (1)

17. *PEINKE, D.M. & BROWN, C.R. (2003). Metabolism and thermoregulation
in the springhare (Pedetes capensis). J. Comp. Physiol. 173: 347-353.

18. *MEYER, A., CLOETE, S.W.P. & BROWN, C.R. (2003). The influence of single sex rearing on ostrich behaviour and skin damage. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 33: 95-104. (1)

19. *MEYER, A., CLOETE, S.W.P., BROWN, C.R. & VAN SCHALKWYK, S.J. (2003). The persistence to slaughter age of scars resulting from damage inflicted to ostrich skins during the grow-out phase. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 33: 32-37. (1)

20. *BRAND, Z., BRAND, T.S., BROWN, C.R. & VAN SCHALKWYK, S.J. (2002). The effect of dietary energy and protein levels on body condition and
production of breeding male ostriches (Struthio camelus domesticus). S.
Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 32: 231-238. (1)

21. *BRAND, Z., BRAND, T.S., BROWN, C.R. & VAN SCHALKWYK, S.J. (2002). The effect of dietary energy and protein levels during a breeding season of ostriches (Struthio cemelus domesticus) on production the following
season. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 32: 226-230. (1)

22. *MEYER, A., CLOETE, S.W.P., BROWN, C.R. & VAN SCHALKWYK, S.J. (2002). Declawing ostrich (Struthio camelus domesticus) chicks to minimize skin damage during rearing. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 32: 192-200. (1)

23. *VAN SCHALKWYK, S.J., BROWN, C.R. & CLOETE, S.W.P. (2002). Gas
exchange of the ostrich embryo during peak metabolism in relation to
incubator design. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 32: 122-129. (1)

24. TANSLEY, S.A. & BROWN, C.R. (2000). RAPD variation in the rare and
endangered Leucadendron elimense (Proteaceae): implications for their
conservation. Biol. Conserv. 95: 39-48. (1)

25. *VAN SCHALKWYK, S.J., CLOETE, S.W.P. BROWN, C.R. & *BRAND, Z. (2000). Hatching success of ostrich eggs related to axis of setting, turning
frequency, and angle of rotation. Brit. Poultry Sci. 41: 46-52. (1)

26. BROWN, C.R. (1999) Metabolism and thermoregulation of individual and
clustered long-fingered bats, Miniopterus schreibersii and the implications
for roosting. S. Afr. J. Zool. 34:166-172. (1)

27. *VAN SCHALKWYK, S.J., BRAND, Z., CLOETE, S.W.P. & BROWN, C.R. (1999). Effects of time of collection and pre-incubation treatment on blastoderm
development and embryonic mortality in ostrich embryos. S. Afr. J. Anim.
Sci. 29: 154-163. (1)

28. *VAN SCHALKWYK, S.J., CLOETE, S.W.P. & BROWN, C.R. (1999). The effect of temperature on the hatching performance of ostrich eggs and its
implications for artificial incubation in forced-draught wooden incubators.
S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 29: 92-99. (1)

29. BROWN, C.R. & *PRIOR, S.A. (1999) Development of body temperature
regulation in ostrich chicks. Br. Poultry Sci. 40: 523-529. (1)

30. *WHITTINGTON-JONES, C.A. & BROWN, C.R. (1999). Thermoregulatory
capabilities of the woodland dormouse, Graphiurus murinus. S. Afr. J. Zool.
34: 34-38. (1)

31. *PEINKE, D.M. & BROWN, C.R. (1999). Osmoregulation and water balance
in the springhare (Pedetes capensis). J. Comp. Physiol. 169: 1-10 (1)

32. BROWN, C.R., *EVERITT, V. & BAXTER, R.M. (1999). Comparative
metabolism, thermoregulation and morphology in two populations of vlei
rats, Otomys irroratus. J. Comp. Physiol. 169: 19-24 (1)

33. BROWN, C.R., *HUNTER, E.M. & BAXTER, R.M. (1997). Metabolism and
thermoregulation in the forest shrew, Myosorex varius (Soricidae:
Crocidurinae). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 118: 1285-1290. (1)

34. BROWN, C.R. & *JONES, G.E. (1996). Some blood chemical, electrolyte and mineral values from young ostrich chicks. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 67:111-114.
(1)

35. BROWN, C.R. & BRYANT, D.M. (1996). Energy expenditure during molt in
dippers: no evidence of elevated costs. Physiol. Zool. 69:1036-1056. (1)

36. BROWN, C.R., *PEINKE, D. & *LOVERIDGE, A. (1996). Mortality in nearterm ostrich embryos during artificial incubation. Br. Poult. Sci. 37: 73-85.
(1)

37. GRAY, D.A. & BROWN, C.R. (1995). Saline infusion-induced increases in
plasma osmolality do not stimulate nasal gland secretion in the ostrich.
Physiol. Zool. 68: 164-175. (1)

38. BROWN, C.R. (1994). Ageing of Red Bishops from endosteal layers in their
bones. Ostrich 65: 134-137. (2)

39. BROWN, C.R. (1994). Nest microclimate, egg temperature, egg water loss
and eggshell conductance in Cape Weavers, Ploceus capensis. Ostrich 65:
26-31 (1)

40. BROWN, C.R. & BERNARD, R.T.F. (1994). Thermal preference of Schreibers' long-fingered (Miniopterus schreibersii) and Cape horseshoe (Rhinolophus capensis) bats. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 107A: 439-449 (1)

41. BROWN, C.R. & *FOSTER G.G. (1992). Thermal and energetic significance of clustering in the speckled mousebird, Colius striatus. J. Comp. Physiol. 162:658-664. (1)

42. BROWN, C.R. & *LEWIS, B.D. (1991). The efficacy of ultrasonic pest
controllers for fleas and ticks. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 62:110-113. (1)

43. BROWN, C.R. & BERNARD, R.T.F. (1991). Validation of subcutaneous body temperature as a measure of deep body temperature in small bats. J. Zool., Lond. 224: 315-318. (2)

44. COOPER, J. & BROWN C.R. (1990). Ornithological research at the Prince
Edward Islands: a review of achievements. S. Afr. J. Antarct. Res. 20:40-57.
(1)

45. BROWN, C.R., KLAGES, N.T. & ADAMS, N.J. (1990). Short and medium-term variation in the diets of penguins at Marion Island. S. Afr. J. Antarct. Res.
20:13-20. (1)

46. COOPER, J., BROWN, C.R., GALES, R.P., HINDELL, M.A., KLAGES, N.T.,
MOORS, P.J., PEMBERTON, D, RIDOUX, V., THOMSON, K. & VAN HEERZIK, Y. (1990). The diets and dietary segregation of crested penguins, Eudyptes. In
Biology of penguins. L.S. Davis & J.T. Darby (eds). pp. 131-156. Academic
Press, Orlando, Florida. (1)

47. ADAMS, N.J. & BROWN, C.R. (1990). Energetics of moult in penguins. In:
Biology of penguins. L.S. Davis & J.T. Darby (eds). pp 297-315. Academic
Press, Orlando. (1)

48. ADAMS, N.J. & BROWN, C.R. (1989). Dietary differentiation and trophic
relationships in a sub-Antarctic penguin community at Marion Island. Mar.
Ecol. Prog. Ser. 57: 249-258. (1)

49. BROWN, C.R. (1989). Energy requirements and food consumption of
Eudyptes penguins at the Prince Edward Islands. Antarct. Sci.1: 15-21. (1)

50. BRANCH, G.M., BOUCHERS, P., BROWN, C.R. & DONNELEY, D. (1988).
Temperature and food as factors influencing oxygen consumption of
intertidal organisms, particularly limpets. Amer. Zool. 28: 137-146. (1)

51. BROWN, C.R. & PRYS-JONES, R.P. (1988). Development of homeothermy in chicks of sub-Antarctic burrowing petrels. S. Afr. J. Zool. 23: 288-294. (1)

52. BROWN, C.R. & ADAMS, N.J. (1988). Egg temperature, embryonic
metabolism and water loss from the eggs of sub-Antarctic Procellariiformes. Physiol. Zool. 61: 126-136. (1)

53. BROWN, C.R. (1988). Egg temperature and embryonic metabolism of Aand
B-eggs of Macaroni and Rockhopper Penguins. S. Afr. J. Zool. 23: 166-
172. (1)

54. BROWN, C.R. (1988). Energy expenditure during incubation in four species
of sub-Antarctic burrowing petrels. Ostrich 59: 67-70. (1)

55. BROWN C.R. (1988). Energy requirements for growth in Salvin's Prions,
Blue Petrels and Greatwinged Petrels. Ibis 130: 527-534. (1)

56. BROWN, C.R. & KLAGES, N.T. (1987). Seasonal and annual variation in diets of Macaroni and southern Rockhopper Penguins at sub-Antarctic Marion
Island. J. Zool., Lond. 212: 7-28. (1)

57. BROWN, C.R. (1987). Energetic requirements for growth and maintenance
in Macaroni and Rockhopper Penguin chicks. Polar Biol. 8: 95-102. (1)

58. BROWN, C.R. (1987). Traveling speed and foraging range of Macaroni and
Rockhopper Penguins at Marion Island. J. Field Orn. 58: 118-125. (1)

59. ADAMS, N.J., BROWN, C.R. & NAGY, K.A. (1986). Energy expenditure of
free-ranging Wandering Albatrosses Diomedea exulans. Physiol. Zool. 59:
583-591. (1)

60. BROWN, C.R. (1986). Feather growth, mass loss and duration of moult in
Macaroni and Rockhopper Penguins. Ostrich 57: 180-184. (1)

61. BERRUTI, A., ADAMS, N.J. & BROWN, C.R. (1985). Chick energy balance in the white-chinned petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis. In: Antarctic nutrient
cycles and food webs. W.R. Siegfried, P.R. Condy & R.M. Laws (eds). pp.
460-465. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (1)

62. BROWN, C.R. (1985). Energetic cost of moult in Macaroni Penguins
(Eudyptes chrysolophus) and Rockhopper Penguins (E. chrysocome). J.
Comp. Physiol. 155: 515-520. (1)

63. BROWN, C.R. & ADAMS, N.J. (1984). Female Wandering Albatross
Diomedea exulans raising a chick on its own at Marion Island. Cormorant
12: 103-104. (2)

64. ADAMS, N.J. & BROWN, C.R. (1984). Metabolic rates of sub-Antarctic
Procellariiformes: a comparative study. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 77A: 169-
173. (1)

65. BROWN, C.R. (1984). Resting metabolic rate and energetic cost of
incubation in Macaroni (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and Rockhopper (E.
chrysocome) penguins. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 77A: 345-350. (1)

66. BROWN, C.R. & ADAMS, N.J. (1984) Basal metabolic rate and energy
expenditure during incubation in the Wandering Albatross (Diomedea
exulans). Condor 86: 182-186. (1)

67. NEWTON, I.P., ADAMS, N.J., BROWN, C.R., ENTICOTT, J.W. & FUGLER, S.R. (1983). Non-marine vagrant birds at the Prince Edward Islands, June 1981-May 1983. Cormorant 11: 35-38. (2)

68. BROWN, C.R. & ADAMS, N.J. (1983). The effect of underwater explosions
on Rockhopper Penguins Eudyptes chrysocome. Cormorant 11: 68. (2)

69. ADAMS, N.J. & BROWN, C.R. (1983). Diving depths of the Gentoo Penguin
Pygoscelis papua. Condor 85: 503-504. (2)

70. BROWN, C.R. & OATLEY, T.B. (1982). Bird ringing at Marion and Prince
Edward Islands, 1977-1982. S. Afr. J. Antarct. Res. 12: 45-48. (1)

71. BROWN, C.R. & LOVERIDGE, J.P. (1981). The effect of temperature on
oxygen consumption and evaporative water loss in Crocodylus niloticus.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 69A: 51-57. (1)

View a complete list of publications (link to full publication list in pdf format)

Research Interests

My research interests are broadly in the field of physiological ecology of mammals and birds. I have carried out research on the energetics and feeding ecology of penguins, albatrosses and petrels in the sub-Antarctic, physiological studies on a variety of small mammals and birds in South Africa and dippers in Scotland.

I have also been involved in more applied research on various aspects of ostrich biology and I continue to collaborate with colleagues in South Africa on several ostrich-related projects.

Postgraduate students supervised:

Z. Brand (PhD) - Studies on embryonic development and hatchability of ostrich eggs.

H. Dekker (PhD) The effect of diet and management on the behaviour and activity budgets of horses.

D.M. Peinke (PhD) - Ecology and physiology of springhares in the Eastern Cape.

S.J. van Schalkwyk (MSc) - Improvement in fertility and hatchability of artificially incubated ostrich eggs in the Little Karoo.

Z. Brand (MSc) - The influence of female nutrition on quality and hatchability of ostrich eggs.

A. Meyer (MSc) - Behaviour and management of ostrich chicks in relation to hide damage on commercial ostrich farms.