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Professor Carsten Ambelas Skjøth

Professor of Atmospheric Sciences

Contact details
Telephone: 01905 85 5226

Academic Profile:

2009: PhD, Graduate School of Science, Copenhagen University, Denmark. Title of Thesis: “Integrating measurements, Phenological Models and atmospheric Models in Aerobiology.”

2004: Cand Scient, Geophysics, Copenhagen University, Denmark. Title of thesis: “A high-resolution weather forecast model for the next generation air pollution forecast system THOR.”

2000: B. Sc. Physics, Copenhagen University, Denmark

Research Profile:

Carstens research focus around aeroallergens and agricultural air quality. The main research questions are related to the exchange between atmosphere and the vegetation/surface and how meteorology affects this exchange and later the concentration of the species in the atmosphere. The studies species includes pollen (e.g. birch, grasses, ragweed) fungal spores (e.g. Alternaria and Cladosporium), pathogens and air pollutants, especially ammonia.   The research is typically carried out by combining ground based observations (e.g. pollen, fungal spores or ammonia) with mathematical models and data obtained through remote sensing.  

Previous and existing research grants, projects and networks:

Marie Curie Fellowship on pollen dispersion modelling (oak) and next gen sequencing with the title "Implementation of a dynamical Pollen Module and the transformations of the pollen including feedbacks in a numerical Weather Forecast Model (IPLATFORM)" (2016-18). Funded by EU, Horizon2020

Using molecular genetics to understand grass species pollen deposition: enhancing bio-aerosol models and implications for human health” (2016-19). Funded by National Environmental Research Council, project ID: NE/N002431/1

New approaches for the early detection of tree health pests and pathogens (2014-2018), no cost extension until March 2018). Funded Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), project ID: BB/L012286/1

Marie Curie Career Integration Grant (2014-18). A project on new detection and modelling methods to explain the amount of fungal spores (Alternaria) in the air. Funded by EU, FP7, project ID: CIG PCIG14-GA-2013-630745

EUNetAIR(2012-16): European Network on New Sensing Technologies for Air-Pollution Control and Environmental Sustainability. A scientific network funded by EU COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).

BAMAP(2010-12): Biospheric-Atmospheric Modelling of Allergenic Pollen. Jointly funded by Villum-Kann Rasmussen Foundation and Nordic Top Researcher Initiative

SUPREME(2013-14): Simple Unified Pollen and Spore Release Model. Funded by Danish Research Council.

ECLAIRE(2011-15): Effects of Climate Change on Air Pollution and Response Strategies for European Ecosystems. A four year project funded by EUs seventh framework programme.

SMARTER(2012-2016): Sustainable management of Ambrosia artemisiifolia in Europe (SMARTER). A scientific network funded by EU COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology).


Contributing to the undergraduate programme at University of Worcester by leading the modules "Meteorology and Climate" and "Atmospheric processes, air pollution and its modelling" and by supervising PhD students'.

Selected publications (or for a full list):


Skjøth, C., Damialis, A., Belmonte, J., De Linares, C., Fernández-Rodríguez, S., Grinn-Gofron, A., Jedryczka, M., Kasprzyk, I., Magyar, D., Myszkowska, D., Oliver, G., Páldy, A., Pashley, C.H., Rasmussen, K., Satchwell, J., Thibaudon, M., Tormo-Molina, R., Vokou, D., Ziemianin, M. and Werner, M. (2016) Alternaria Spores in the Air Across Europe: Abundance, Seasonality and Relationships with Climate, Meteorology and Local Environment. Aerobiologia, 32 (1). pp. 3-22. ISSN Print: 0393-5965 Online: 1573-3025




Werner, M., Geels, C., Kryza, M. and Skjøth, C. (2016) Using a Dynamical Approach for Implementing Ammonia Emissions into WRF-Chem Over Europe. Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXIV. pp. 345-350. ISSN 2213-8684



Skjøth, C.A. Bilinska, D., Werner, M., Malkiewicz, M., Adams-Groom, B., Kryza, M., Drzeniecka-Osiadacz, A. (2016) Footprint areas of pollen from alder (Alnus) and birch (Betula) in the UK (Worcester) and Poland (Wroclaw) during 2005–2014, Acta Agrobotannica, 8 (4). pp. 315-324.  

Sommer, J., Smith, M., Šikoparija, B., Kasprzyk, I., Myszkowska, D., Grewling, L., and Skjøth, C. (2015) Risk of Exposure to Airborne Ambrosia Pollen from Local and Distant Sources in Europe – an Example from Denmark. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 22 (4). pp. 625-631. ISSN Print: 1232-1966 Online: 1898-2263

Fernández-Rodríguez, S., Sadys, M., Smith, M., Tormo-Molina, R., Skjøth, C., Maya-Manzano, J., Silva-Palacios, I., and Gonzalo-Garijo, A. (2015) Potential Sources of Airborne Alternaria spp. spores in South-west Spain. Science of the Total Environment, 533. pp. 165-176. ISSN Online: 0048-9697

Skjøth, C., Werner, M., Kryza, M., Adams-Groom, B., Wakeham, A.,Lewis, and M. Kennedy, R. (2015) Quality of the Governing Temperature Variables in WRF in Relation to Simulation of Primary Biological Aerosols. Advances in Meteorology (412658). pp. 1-15. ISSN 1687-9309

Werner, M., Kryza, M., Geels, C., Ellermann, T. and Skjøth, C. (2015) Spatial, Temporal and Vertical Distribution of Ammonia Concentrations Over Europe – Comparing a Static and Dynamic Approach With WRF-Chem. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 15. pp. 22935-22973. ISSN Print: 1680-7316 Online: 1680-7324

Sadys, M., Kennedy, R., and Skjøth, C. (2015) An Analysis of Local Wind and Air Mass Directions and Their Impact on Cladosporium Distribution Using HYSPLIT and Circular Statistics. Fungal Ecology, 18. pp. 56-66. ISSN 1754-5048

Karrer, G., Skjøth, C., Šikoparija, B., Smith, M., Berger, U. and Essl, F. (2015) Ragweed (Ambrosia) Pollen Source Inventory for Austria. Science of the Total Environment, 523. pp. 120-128. ISSN Print: 0048-9697 Online: 1879-1026

Werner, Malgorzata and Skjøth, C. and Kryza, M. and Dore, A.J. (2015) Understanding Emissions of Ammonia from Buildings and Application of Fertilizers: An Example from Poland. Biogeosciences Discussions, 12. pp. 2021-2061. ISSN Online: 1810-6285

Ørby, P. V. and Peel, R. G. and Skjøth, C. and Schlünssen, V. and Bønløkke, J. H. and Ellermann, T. and Brændholt, A.and Sigsgaard, T. and Hertel, O. (2015) An Assessment of the Potential for Co-exposure to Allergenic Pollen and Air Pollution in Copenhagen, Denmark. Urban Climate. ISSN 2212-0955 (In Press

Hernandez-Ceballos, M.A. and Skjøth, C. and Garcia-Mozo, H. and Bolivar, J. P. and Galan, C. (2014) Improvement in the Accuracy of Back Trajectories Using WRF to Identify Pollen Sources in Southern Iberian Peninsula. International Journal of Biometeorology, 58 (10). pp. 2031-2043. ISSN Print: 0020-7128 Online:1432-1254

O'Connor, D and Sadys, Magdalena and Skjøth, C. and Healy, D and Kennedy, Roy and Sodeau, J (2014) Atmospheric Concentrations of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Ganoderma and Didymella Spores Monitored in Cork (Ireland) and Worcester (England) During the Summer of 2010. Aerobiologia, 30 (4). pp. 397-411. ISSN Print: 0393-5965 Online:1573-3025

Fernandez-Rodriguez, Santiago and Skjøth, C. and Tormo-Molina, Rafael and Brandao, Rui and Caeiro, Elsa and Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada and Gonzalo-Garijo, Angela and Smith, Matt (2014) Identification of Potential Sources of Airborne Olea Pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula. International Journal of Biometeorology, 58 (3). pp. 337-348. ISSN 1432-1254

Sadys, M. and Skjøth, C. and Kennedy, Roy (2014) Back-trajectories Show Export of Airborne Fungal Spores (Ganoderma sp.) From Forests to Agricultural and Urban Areas in England. Atmospheric Environment, 84. pp. 88-99. ISSN 1352-2310

Thibaudon, M. and Sikoparija, B. and Oliver, G. and Smith, C. and Skjøth, C. (2014) Ragweed Pollen Source Inventory for France - the Second Largest Centre of Ambrosia in Europe. Atmospheric Environment, 83. pp. 62-71. ISSN 1352-2310

Peel, Robert and Ørby, P. V. and Skjøth, C. and Kennedy, Roy and Schlünssen, V. and Smith, M. and Sommer, J. andHertel, O. (2014) Seasonal Variation in Diurnal Atmospheric Grass Pollen Concentration Profiles. Biogeosciences, 11. pp. 821-832. ISSN Print: 1726-4170 Online:1726-4189)

Khwarahm, N. and Dash , J. and Atkinson, P.M. and Newnham , R.M. and Skjøth, C. and Adams-Groom, Beverley andCaulton, E. and Head, K. (2014) Exploring the Spatio-temporal Relationship Between Two Key Aeroallergens and Meteorological Variables in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Biometeorology, 58 (4). pp. 529-545. ISSN Print: 0020-7128 Online:1432-1254

Sadys, Magdalena and Skjøth, C. and Kennedy, Roy (2014) Determination of Alternaria spp. Habitats Using 7-Day Volumetric Spore Trap, Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model and Geographic Information System.Urban Climate. ISSN Print: 2212-0955 (In Press)      

Skjøth, C. and Baker, Peter and Sadys, Magdalena and Adams-Groom, Beverley (2014) Pollen From Alder (Alnus sp.), Birch (Betula sp.) and Oak (Quercus sp.) in the UK Originate From Small Woodlands. Urban Climate. ISSN Print: 2212-0955 (In Press)

Santiago Fernández-Rodríguez, Carsten Ambelas Skjøth, Rafael Tormo-Molina, Rui Brandao, Elsa Caeiro, Inmaculada Silva-Palacios, Ángela Gonzalo-Garijo, Matt Smith Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula International Journal of Biometeorology April 2014, Volume 58, Issue 3, pp 337-348

B. Šikoparija, C.A. Skjøth,K. Alm Kübler, A. Dahl, J. Sommer, L. Grewling, P. Radišic, M. Smith, (2013) A mechanism for long distance transport of Ambrosia pollen from the Pannonian Plain Agricultural and Forest MeteorologyVolume 180, 15 October 2013, Pages 112–117

K. Hansen, L. L. Sørensen, O. Hertel, C. Geels, C. A. Skjøth, B. Jensen, and E. Boegh (2013) Ammonia emissions from deciduous forest after leaf fall Biogeosciences, 10, 4577–4589

Mark A. Sutton, Stefan Reis, Stuart N. Riddick, Ulrike Dragosits, Eiko Nemitz, Mark R. Theobald, Y. Sim Tang, Christine F. Braban, Massimo Vieno, Anthony J. Dore, Robert F. Mitchell, Sarah Wanless, Francis Daunt, David Fowler, Trevor D. Blackall, Celia Milford, Chris R. Flechard, Benjamin Loubet, Raia Massad, Pierre Cellier, Erwan Personne, Pierre F. Coheur, Lieven Clarisse, Martin Van Damme, Yasmine Ngadi, Cathy Clerbaux, Carsten Ambelas Skjøth, Camilla Geels, Ole Hertel, Roy J. Wichink Kruit, Robert W. Pinder, Jesse O. Bash, John T. Walker, David Simpson, László Horváth, Tom H. Misselbrook, Albert Bleeker8, Frank Dentener and Wim de Vries (2013) Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B,          vol. 368 (1621)

D. C. Oderbolz, S. Aksoyoglu, J. Keller, I. Barmpadimos, R. Steinbrecher, C. A. Skjøth, C. Plaß-Dülmer, and A. S. H. Prévôt (2013) A comprehensive emission inventory of biogenic volatile organic compounds in Europe: improved seasonality and land-cover Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1689-1712

Ole Hertel, Camilla Geels, Lise Marie Frohn, Thomas Ellermann, Carsten Skjoth, Per Lostrom, Jesper H. Christensen, Helle Vibeke Andersen, Robert George Peel,  (2013) Assessing atmospheric nitrogen deposition to natural and semi-natural ecosystems - Experience from Danish studies using the DAMOS, Atmospheric Environment,   66, 151 - 160

C. Ambelas Skjøth and C. Geels, (2013) The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 117–128, 2013,

C. Ambelas Skjøth, P. V. Ørby, T. Becker, C. Geels, V. Schlünssen, T. Sigsgaard,J. H. Bønløkke, J. Sommer, P. Søgaard, and O. Hertel, (2013), Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing, Biogeosciences 10, 541-554

U. L. Zweifel, Å. Hagström, K. Holmfeldt, R. Thyrhaug, C. Geels , L. M. Frohn, C. Ambelas Skjøth, U. Gosewinkel Karlson, (2012) Highly dynamic bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity above the atmospheric boundary layer. Aerobiologia, 28, 481-498, 2012

O. Hertel, C. Ambelas Skjøth, S. Reis, A. Bleeker, R. Harrison, J. N. Cape, D. Fowler, U. Skiba, D. Simpson, T. Jickells, M. Kulmala, S. Gyldenkærne, L. L. Sørensen, L. W. Erisman, and M. A. Sutton, (2012) Governing processes for reactive nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere in relation to ecosystem, climatic and human health impacts. Biogeosciences 9, 4921-4954

C. Ambelas Skjøth, J. Sommer, L. Frederiksen and U. Gosewinkel Karlson, (2012) Crop harvest in Denmark and Central Europe contributes to the local load of airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12, 11107-11123

C. Ambelas Skjøth, C. Geels, H. Berge, S. Gyldenkærne  S., H. Fagerli, T. Ellermann., L. M. Frohn, J. Christensen,K. M. Hansen, K. Hansen, and Hertel, O., (2011) Spatial and temporal variations in ammonia emissions - a freely accessible model code for Europe: Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5221-5236

C. Ambelas Skjøth , M. Smith, B. Šikoparijac, A. Stach, D. Myszkowskae, I. Kasprzykf, P. Radišic, B. Stjepanovic, I. Hrga, D. Apatini, D. Magyar, A. Páldy and N. Ianovici. (2010) A method for producing airborne pollen source inventories: An example of Ambrosia (ragweed) on the Pannonian Plain. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150, 1203-1210.